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Roman Censuses since 1871

When Italy was unified in 1861, the most important city was missing: Rome. It was the seat of the Ecclesiastical State, which in that year also included large parts of the region of Lazio. On 20 September 1870, the Italian royal army took the city in spectacular fashion (read the story here), putting an end to the Pope’s worldly power. The kingdom of Italy had achieved unification on this day. With the Vatican, the pope was given his own territory. Rome became the formally the capital of Italy in February 1871. The consequences were very far-reaching: the court and the government apparatus moved from Florence to Rome. The city’s new political status promised economic growth. This double perspective led countless job seekers to migrate to Rome. This created a sustained population growth that was measured by the Roman censuses since 1871.

The tables

The data below come from two sources. Sanfilippo in the third column stands for the historian Mario Sanfilippo, while the abbreviation ISTAT refers to the National Institute of Statistics in Rome. The table gives the Roman Censuses of Population since 1871 up to 1951. Only the Istat also gives a percentage for growth plus the date of the census.


Jaar Datum Sanfilippo ISTAT %
1871 31/12 244.844 209.222
1881 31/12 300.467 269.813 29.0 %
1891 386.626
1901 10/02 462.783 416.028 52.2 %
1911 10/06 542.123 511.076 22.8 %
1921 01/12 691.661 650.258 27.2 %
1931 21/04 1.008.083 916.858 41.0 %
1941 1.403.307
1945 1.500.513
1951 04/11 1.626.793 43.6 %


Sanfilippo mentions that the years 1881, 1941 and 1945 he gives are not based on censuses. He calculated the numbers based on data in the Municipal Archives. Compared to the Istat censuses, the numbers he provides are considerably higher. He offers no explanation for it.

The censuses from 1871 onwards were based on the concept of the family. Only in 1901 did each member of the family have to fill in their own form.


Notes on Roman Censuses since 1871

  • Mario Sanfilippo, Le tre citt√† di Roma. Lo sviluppo urbano dalle origini a oggi. Bari-Roma: Laterza, 1993.
  • ISTAT = Istituto nazionale di statistica. The website is in Italian and in English.


Fountains of Rome Bibliography

This bibliography lists mainly Italian books on the Fountains of Rome. The list includes catalogues, monographs, repertories. Travel guides are not found here. Pietro Lombardi designed the fountain pictured below (1927). You’ll find it in via degli Staderari. The bibliography starts after the photo.

Bibliografie Fonteinen van Rome


Arranged by author. Between square brackets [ ] I added additional information for some titles.

  1. Giancarlo Belardi (ed.), Le fontane di Roma. Le mostre d’acqua della Roma papale ed umbertina ritratte da pittori dell’800. Roma: Belardi Rumor, 1994. 98 pp.
  2. Bruno Brizzi, Roma: le fontane. Roma: Colombo, 1972. 242 pp. [Chronologisch van opzet. loopt van de oudheid tot aan de zestiger jaren. De zes hoofdstukken hebben elk een pagina inleiding, de rest bestaat uit afbeeldingen. De auteur behandelt net iets meer dan 100 fonteinen.]
  3. Bruno Brizzi, Le fontane di Roma. Roma: Colombo, 1972. 294 pp. [De auteur heeft zijn boek uit 1972 radikaal herzien. Aan de inhoud gaat nu een hoofdstuk vooraf dat werd geschreven door Emilio Rodriguez-Almeida. Het gaat over de acquaducten, de termen en fonteinen in de Romeinse oudheid. De auteur heeft bovendien een grote hoeveelheid illustraties toegevoegd. Een fraaie monografie.]
  4. Luigi Callari, Le fontane di Roma. Roma: Apollon, 1945. Herdruk in 1970.
  5. Sergio Delli, Le fontane di Roma. Roma: Schwarz e Meyer editori, 1985. 158 pp. Eerste druk 1976. [Het boek is chronologisch opgezet en loopt van de Romeinse oudheid tot heden. Het bevat tientallen foto’s van Enrico Blasi en Massimo Trombetti verdeeld over drie katernen van elk 16 foto’s buiten de tekst. Index van de fonteinen.]
  6. Andrea De Marchi, Le Fontanelle di Roma. Roma: Anthropos , 1988. 61 pp. [De auteur bespreekt 48 van de kleinere fonteinen. Met 48 kleurenfoto’s en bijschriften.]
  7. Beata Di Gaddo, Le fontane di Roma: Rilievi. Genua: Vitali e Ghianda, 1964.
  8. Cesare D’Onofrio, Le fontane di Roma: Con documenti e disegni inediti. Roma: Staderini Editore, 1962.
  9. H.V. Morton, The Waters of Rome.  London: Connoisseur & Michael Joseph, 1966. 302 pp. Photographs By Mario Carrieri and Other Illustrations.
  10. Willy Pocino, Le fontane di Roma. Roma: Newton e Compton editori, 2004. 511 pp. Eerste druk 1982. [Het boek is alfabetisch geordend op de naam van de straat of het plein waar de fontein zich bevindt. Het gaat dus om een inventarisatie. Deze uitgave bevat een voorwoord van de toenmalige burgemeester Francesco Rutelli. Opgenomen zijn bovendien 75 z/w tekeningen van Franco Zampetti. Verder een zaken- en een namenindex.]
  11. Marvin Pulvers , Roman fountains. 2000 fountains in Rome. A complete collection. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2002. 928 pp.
  12. Mario Rivosecchi, Le Fontane di Roma. Roma: Editalia, 1994. 148 pp.
  13. Salvatore Spoto, Le Fontane. Viaggio con la ninfa Egeria alla scoperta di Luoghi misteriosi e storie segrete. Roma: Edizioni Coralli, 2010. 126 pp. [De auteur bespreekt ruim dertig belangrijke fonteinen. Daar besteedt hij aandacht aan zes fonteinen in zes wijken van de stad. Van alle besproken fonteinen zijn recente foto’s afgedrukt.]

Notes on Fountains of Rome Bibliography

  • Pietro Lombardi (1894-1984) was an architect and sculptor. Rome has nine fountains designed by this artist. Here is a short English wiki-page.